This time our departure was rather rushed as we could not leave until the new wheels arrived from Germany. (http://www.expeditions-lkw.de/felge-11-75×22-5-8-loch-et-110-kronprinz.html Thank you, Fabian!) They made it by the skin of their teeth and we drove to Baltimore on the Wednesday to pick them up and then dropped them at the tire shop.Fred had them installed with the new tires on the Friday and then it was all systems go for departure on the following Wednesday. Thank you all of the wonderful folk at Alban Tire, Springfield. (https://www.albantire.com)
New, round wheels and tires!
It always takes far longer to get ready than one thinks it should but we made it out about 11 AM with most of what we planned to take with us!And in the U.S. one can always buy what one forgets!In other parts of the world that is not always the case!
We were heading for Overland Expo West, (https://www.overlandexpo.com/west) so had a limited amount of time to make it to Flagstaff, Arizona which made for long driving days. We could see considerable flooding as we approached the Mississippi River and as the river was cresting further north at that moment, we were glad to get through without problems. Perhaps as result of all of the rain, the spring flowers beside the interstate were lovely, even into the desert.
We took the shortest possible route, Interstate 40, but were frankly shocked by the state of the road surface in several of the states and by the general lack of open rest areas. Oklahoma had not one rest area available, so no wonder all the truck stops advertised “clean toilets”.Even a camper needs a rest area for a lunch stop.Eating lunch in a truck stop parking area is no fun.
That said, there were some pleasant surprises en route. The KOA in Grants, New Mexico is not impressive from the road, but it turns out to be lovely and right in the middle of “El Malpais” (badland). (https://koa.com/campgrounds/grants/) They even have a short, annotated lava/nature walk which gives you a sense of the unique geology of the region.
As it was warm and the sun was shining, we made a flying return to the Painted Desert and stopped at the same overlooks we had visited on our first trip west in 2014. That time it was cold enough to chill the proverbial monkeys! This time it was lovely and the sunlight made the colors so much richer.
But we made it to Flagstaff in time, met up with friends at the KOA and headed to Overland Expo. And the new wheels and tires? Round and wonderful! We could make as much as 60 MPH!
Overland Expo is in a new venue, Fort Tuthill Park, which is right in Flagstaff, a boon for day trippers and those who stay overnight in hotels. The event is now up to 22,000 people, and, as Denise’s brother would say, it was “heaving.”
We showed the 917 at the XPCamper display and were busy dawn to dusk.
Heading down the Rhine, we enjoyed the many castles perched on crags and of course, the Lorelei Rock.
Interesting trivia. During WWII the Allies generally tried to avoid bombing churches or old castles. So, suddenly, lots of railroad tunnel mouths and other points got converted into “churches.” And so they remain to this day, with trains running through them every day.
The “church” of Our Lady of the Tracks!Great RV campsite!
A Viking sistership.
… and an older style Rhine boat.
The Captain, piloting the boat from one of two outside conning stations.
For those of us old enough to have stood a bridge watch with a wheel and lee helm, the high tech controls of the Viking river boat are amazing!
After this visit, we headed into town, where we explored on a walking tour the Chemin de la Corniche with its spectacular view of the 17thcentury wall and city, the main market area and the Notre Dame Cathedral.
We returned to the Cathedral for a wonderful, thirty-minute organ recital. You can see and hear a bit here. (Hint: Crank up the volume!)
And having left our boat, we headed to Paris by bus. Once there, we visited a Moroccan restaurant near our hotel which we knew from previous visits had a long lunch the following day with a friend from Bangui. Then back to the US after a great trip.
We unfortunately left the sunshine behind as we entered Germany. The transit from the Czech Republic to Germany was by bus and our first stop was Nuremberg. This turned out to be a bit of a loss as a rock concert prevented us from visiting the (in)famous “Triumph of the Will” stadium (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triumph_of_the_Will) and the trial museum was not open either. We had to content ourselves with a visit to the market and a sample of the famous local sausages.
Nuremberg market square with the 14th century Schooner Brunnen fountain in the front and the Frauenkirche (Church of Our Lady) in the background.
It was difficult to imagine this square as the site of Hitler’s final speech in “The Triumph of the Will.” May it always be remembered today for sausages and Lebkuchen, gingerbread cookies.
Figure on fountain
The Männleinlaufen, an animated clock on the Frauenkirche
We finished our visit to Nuremberg with a view of the town from the Castle.
After Nuremberg we arrived at the boat in Bamberg and spent our first night on board. The next morning we set off in the pouring rain to see Bamberg. As it was a Sunday, a lot of museums were closed and we were unable to enter the Cathedral due to Sunday services, but we had a pleasant, if damp, view of our first German town and would certainly return.
The Fuersten gate to the Bamberg cathedral has two interesting statues; “Ecclesia” and “Synagoga.”
Ecclesia is crowed with heaven. She used to carry a staff with a Crucifix, symbolizing the power of the church on earth. (Original statues were removed in 1937.)
Synagoga is, however, blindfolded and carries a broken rod. (A not too subtle message!)
According to legend, the bishop of Bamberg would not grant the citizens any land for the construction of a town hall. This prompted the townsfolk to ram stakes into the river Regnitz to create an artificial island, on which they built the town hall they so badly wanted.
The bridge over the river runs right through the town hall. (On the inner wall is a plaque dedicated to Claus von Stauffenberg. From the Bamberg area, he was one of the leaders of “Operation Valkyrie”; the plot to assassinate Hitler.)
Beautiful statue on the bridge
We ended with coffee and cake (yes, there is a theme here!) in a Konditorei and returned to the ship, feeling warmer! We left around midday heading for Wurzburg down the Rhine-Main-Danube Canal.
We traveled several rivers during this cruise and enjoyed them all! We are total lock and canal fanatics, having transited the Panamá Canal, the Suez Canal, and parts of the Kennet and Avon Canal. If the Rhine-Main-Danube Canal is less well known than Suez or Panamá, it is an amazing engineering accomplishment with a long history. Read more here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhine–Main–Danube_Canal
Approaching a Lock
Waiting for a boat to leave the Lock
Lock gates opening after lowering the boat
For those who are wondering, the Viking river cruise boats are very much like miniature ocean liners. They are carefully sized to fit the locks but despite being very long and narrow, they do not feel cramped at all. Indeed, the general feeling is one of extreme spaciousness. Because of low clearance, the bridge, and indeed everything on the top deck, can be lowered.
The next day, we took a full day excursion to Rothenburg ob der Tauber. The rain was not constant and we enjoyed an extended walking tour of the town, which is one of the best preserved of the old towns, many of which suffered extensive bomb damage during World War II.
The medieval feel is quite strong and included a costumed minstrel band singing, drumming and asking for beer up and down the high street. Great fun.
Beer for the Band
A bit of whimsy
We spotted a stork’s nest and walked the town walls and visited the Hauptkirche of Saint Jakob (high or main church).
Nest on the roof
On the battlements
The church contains the Altar of the Holy Blood, a reliquary said to contain the blood of the Christ.
On our return to Wurzburg we visited the Bishops’ Residenz, a UNESCO listed site built between 1720 and 1744 by the prince bishops. A very opulent palace created for some very powerful men of their time, with extensive marble, gold stucco and frescoes.
Nothing modest about this palace
The ceiling frescos were later featured in the PBS series “Civilizations.” Beyond the theme of the superiority of Europe, they feature amazing trompe d’oeil elements like people who begin as paintings on the ceiling and end as statues and figures painted so that they appear to be standing outside of the fame of the ceiling; an amazing 3-D effect. Religious scholars could use this palace as the setting for a discussion of the doctrine of the poverty of the Christ. (Yes, that is sarcasm.)
Grand Stairway (Photo from the Web.)
We declined the all day tour to Heidelberg as the sun was peeking through and we preferred to sail on the river and enjoy the view.
We weren’t the only ones enjoying a quiet day on the river.
Lumpia, pancit, ribs!
The cuisine on board was excellent European food, so we were surprised to learn that the chef is actually a Filipino. When he learned the Fred had lived in the Philippines, a Filipino feast was prepared for lunch.
We stopped briefly in the small town of Collenberg. At one time it had an interesting motte and bailey castle. The motte was a hill overlooking the Main River and the bailey extended down to the river’s edge, allowing it to control traffic.
The keep on the motte, overlooking the town. (Now used for music festivals.)
The original wall, by the river, repurposed for houses, both old and new.
Tied up at the pier in Collenberg
RV’s parked in the riverside campground.
Local official checking out the river boat. He collected a toll in cookies.
The following day we were due in Mainz in the mid morning but were delayed because of heavy lock traffic on the Main River.
Tied up at Mainz. You can see how long these river boats are.
This messed up the guides that Viking had booked so we headed out alone for the Gutenberg Museum, which was the highlight of the day for us. We viewed the Gutenberg Bibles on display in the museum, which are amazing and still so colorful after all this time. We watched a printing demonstration in German, which was fun for both of us and showed the color techniques. (Denise speaks German, but Fred does not. He had the greater challenge!)
Been a long evolution from this to an inkjet on your desk
If they can fit, so can we!
With our plans to ship our camper to Europe, we were always alert for signs of campgrounds and campers. It was interesting to see this beast parked on the street in Mainz.
That afternoon we visited Rudesheim am Rhein. We wandered the town and headed for the Rheingau Wine Museum at Brömser Castle. https://www.ruedesheim.de/en/wine-culinary-art/wine-culture/The museum, located in the 1,000-year-old castle, was itself interesting and dealt with the history of wine making but the fabulous part was the castle tower itself. This was accessible to those wishing to climb it, which we of course did, and enjoyed spectacular views of the river and town from the top.
We love prowling the winding stairways of medieval castles, cathedrals, and other buildings. This little tower was one of the best textbook cases of how these passages were laid out to favor both communication and defense. For those of you who are not medieval fortification nuts, the stairs were built as a clockwise spiral so that an attacker climbing the stairs would have his sword arm blocked by the central support. A defender, on the other hand, would have his right hand free. The steps were also often uneven, so as to cause someone not familiar with the stair way to stumble. And, of course, they were only one person wide so that attackers could never take advantage of numbers.
Denise has her right hand free to defend against attackers climbing the stairs.
Watch your Step!
We missed the two museums devoted to torture and crime, although the toy and railway museum might be a better bet. A good reason to go back? Of course! Where else can you find an inn with a medieval tower flying the Harley-Davidon flag?
In May of 2017, we were temporarily without a camper, and Denise decided that she needed a trip somewhere! So, as we are loyal PBS viewers and as several friends had enjoyed a Viking River cruise in Europe, we made a last minute decision to cruise with Viking on their Prague to Paris jaunt. We gave Viking only about three weeks notice, but we were pleasantly surprised that they managed to fit us in with a minimum of fuss and bother, both on the cruise, and on our various flights.
We first flew, via Amsterdam, to Prague, a city that Denise had always wanted to visit. We were greeted with lovely sunny weather and thoroughly enjoyed our ramble around the city on the afternoon of our arrival.
It was such a lovely day, we just had to have cake and espresso! It was at this point that we discovered that, despite being in the EU, the Czech Republic is not a Euro country. Worse, most ATM’s in Prague only accept local cards! Finally we were able to exchange US$ cash for sufficient local currency and the coffee and goodies were ours. The moral of the story is that it is always a good idea to have some local currency on hand!
Municipal House (Obecní dům)
Old Town Square (Staromestske names)
Doorway on the “Street of Paris”
This is known as the house “At the Minute” and was Franz Kafka’s childhood home
Not all of Prague was dignified and classic, we enjoyed several oddball sights as well:
It seems that for some orientals, wedding photos in Europe are a thing.
Working off your beer or merely reloading during your workout?
Being quite tired, we had dinner in a restaurant in our hotel, which served local specialties. The “queen” of Czech cooking is said to be roast beef with cream sauce, Svíčková. Certainly the dish we had was out of this world. When we looked it up in our European cookbook, we realized that the book dated from the Cold War and noted that this dish, along with the famous Prague Ham, was unavailable locally. Reminded us of Cuba – Cubans would look at a Cuban cookbook from Miami and comment, “Yeah, my mother would talk about those dishes.” How times change! We found a recipe in a cookbook on our riverboat and photographed it! You can also find various recipes on the Internet: https://www.eatingeurope.com/svickova-braised-beef-recipe/
A tour the next morning showed us some of the city’s highlights, including the Prague Castle with its spectacular views and interesting history. (See photo at top of post.) (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prague_Castle)
St. Vitus Cathedral. (This church was used as a background in the movie “A Knight’s Tale.”)
I so need these for our drains
Mosaic on the Exterior of the Cathedral
Denise nails the image
Back of St. Vitus
Parts of the Prague Castle as still used as government offices. (We had flashbacks was we watched a motorcade arrive!)
Ah, memories! And this time we don’t have to do anything!
Then we simply joined the crowds to enjoy the spectacle of the ceremonial changing of the guard.
Love the old goose step, Soviet style
Prague, like many medieval cities sits astride a river.
One way to cross the river is the Charles Bridge, famous for its many statues.
Two are especially interesting. It is a crucifixion scene, labeled in Hebrew – an incentive for Jews to convert. (We were to see more of this theme.)
The caption on this crucifix is in Hebrew and exhorts Jews to convert to Christianity.
And if you weren’t ready to convert, there is a statue on the spot where John of Nepomuk is said to have been martyred by being thrown off the bridge. Notice that the image of the saint and the cross are shiny – you touch them for luck. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_of_Nepomuk)
Both were reminders that history has its rough side.
Charles iV, King of Bohemia and Holy Roman Emperor. Note the incredible detail of his clothing.
The bridge is named for Charles IV: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_IV,_Holy_Roman_Emperor
Once back in the city center, we chose to leave the tour and enjoy a quiet lunch a little off the beaten track.
We duly admired the famous clock striking the hour off the Market Square. In addition to telling the time and various astronomical data, it features saints and apostles appearing at the windows. Of course, you need a degree to understand all of the data presented – and this thing was built in the 1400’s! Read more here: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prague_astronomical_clock
Click on the image to enlarge and see St. Peter, with his key to Heaven, in the window
The pastry/Ice cream fix accomplished, we had to find a horse carriage for the obligatory tour.
That night, we went to a tourist dinner with local dishes and traditional dancing. The music was great, the dancing was fun, and the costumes lovely, but the food at our hotel was better!
The next morning we headed off by bus to Germany to board the Viking Alsvin. We spent the first night tied up to an industrial dock at Bamberg.
Now it was time to head south and we decided to make another stop in the Hudson Valley of New York State to help our daughter celebrate her birthday. But before leaving Canada there was a monastery that Denise wanted to visit. First, because she had never gone to a monastery before and second, they were known for cheese making and Gregorian chant in a modern style, both of which appealed.
So we headed for the Abbaye St Benoit du Lac (https://abbaye.ca/index.php/fr/) tucked away in the southern edge of Quebec south of Magog. (Gog and Magog? What could go wrong?) The Abbaye was founded in the early 20thcentury by French monks of the Benedictine Order, after being banished from France (who knew that monasteries had ever been banned in France?) and had been built in stages, mostly quite modern. The church was built on more traditional lines. We took part in an interesting tour and attended part of the daily Mass, which included chants. We then headed to the store for a selection of cheeses and of course, a CD or two. We completed our visit to the area by buying some fresh crusty bread and proceeded to eat lunch by opening one of our new cheeses.
We then headed for the US skirting Montreal and crossing over the border near the St. Lawrence Seaway at Cornwall. The crossing was uneventful, but it occurred later that this was such a small post that an expedition vehicle might well have raised eyebrows.
Fred had long wanted to visit the Seaway, having seen the old Walter Cronkite film as a child. (https://www.seaway.dot.gov/explore/video-about-the-seaway) And, of course, having lived in Panamá, transited Suez, and spent time on an English canal boat, we are ALL about canals! But neither of us realized that most of the viewing points for locks are on the Canadian side. We did however discover that the Eisenhower Locks were next door to the Robert Moses State Park (https://parks.ny.gov/parks/51/details.aspx) and that the park has a campground, right on the Seaway. So we headed there. As it was close to 5 pm, we headed first to the Park office to see if there was a space available. Indeed there was and we acquired an electric only space (all that was available) in one of the two campgrounds. From one of the lookout areas we then watched a ship go through the lock before heading to our campground.
Only the ship’s bridge is still showing over the top edge of the lock.
Leaving the lock and heading towards the Atlantic. The next lock is about a mile downstream, across a small lake.
This was a lovely site, nicely wooded with a path leading to the water’s edge. Blue approved and went to explore the beach. Fred looked up the time of the next ship passing the locks and walked out to the water to watch its passage and take a photo or two.
A classic Great Lakes ore carrier came into view.
And lined itself up with the lock chamber.
We knew that the weather was supposed to worsen overnight. And indeed it did. We awoke to pouring rain and set off to visit the Visitor Center in cloudy, cool weather. There were no ships due to pass but we enjoyed the film of the creation of the Seaway (the same film that Fred had seen at the cinema once in the 50’s). (https://www.seaway.dot.gov/explore/visitors-center)
We spent the day heading east and then south through New York before stopping for the night in Lake George. We took a site at the Lake George Battleground State Park campsite, which is right in the center of town. This made it easy to decide to go out for dinner. The weather had improved during the day and the sun was shining so we Googled restaurants in walking distance and decided to try what looked like a reasonable Indian restaurant (http://www.tandoorigrilllakegeorge.com/menu.php) just up the road. We left the skylight in the camper wide open to cool it and with not even an umbrella between us, headed out. Well, just after we placed our order, the heavens opened and it poured. Fred raced back to the campground to close the skylight to prevent us having a totally wet bed and drove the truck back to the restaurant, as there was parking available. Soggy Fred arrived back in time for his dinner and we had a lovely meal before driving back to our site in shining sun again! The food was so good that we ordered more and packed the fridge so as to offer an Indian meal to my daughter and her family the next night!
We headed south through Quebec on the first rainy day we had experienced in ages! So, as we had no campground reservation, our priority was a stop at the campground we had selected as our first choice, Camping de la Fort de la Martiniere (http://www.campingdelamartiniere.com/index_en.html) where we hoped to spend three nights. There was room for us and we verified the information we had seen on the campground website about how we were going to get to Quebec City across the river the next morning. And yes, there really is a fort de la Martiniere, right next to the campground; http://www.fortwiki.com/Fort_de_la_Martiniere
Next morning dawned bright and sunny though cool and we set off on our day’s jaunt. This involved first a fast walk to the bus stop about a kilometer away (a fast walk as we were a little late leaving and did not want to miss the bus). The bus arrived on time and we then had a pleasant 20 minute ride to the ferry terminal. We paid for round trip tickets and went on board the ferry to Old Quebec. It was rather nice to have a short cruise across the river included in our day! (https://www.traversiers.com/en/our-ferries/quebec-city-levis-ferry/home/)
Quebec from the river with our twin ferry leaving the Quebec side.
Once there, we disembarked and headed for a cup of coffee. We went up a narrow staircase to the Rue Petit Champlain and found a lovely coffee shop, open to the street where we could view the passers by and catch our breath. (https://www.chocolateriegigi.ca) The coffee and the goodies were wonderful! The streets in the old section were narrow, decorated with a myriad of flower baskets and pots and charming in a very European way. They were also packed with tourists. And of course hearing French spoken all around made it seem quite European, even if the accent was quite different.
We wandered up the street to the Place d’Armes (which brought back memories of Plazas de Armas, squares of the same name all over South America) via the nifty funicular, a kind of open air elevator.
Fairmont Hotel. The funicular top terminal is just to the right of the picture — looks like a door.
Statue celebrating faith.
Alas, the timing was wrong for tea! (But then we probably could not have afforded it. And we’ll skip our usual rant about the Canadians ending tea service just when it should begin!)
We decided to take a hop on-hop off bus as these are usually a good way to get a feel for a new town and indeed we were taken on a tour of some of the outer areas which we would never have found.We “hopped off” to have lunch on the Grande Allée.
After lunch we walked across to the George V Square to the Museum of the Plains of Abraham. (http://www.ccbn-nbc.gc.ca/en/) Here was our opportunity to learn more about the role played by Quebec in the Seven Years War (or French and Indian War as it was known in the English colonies) in an excellent setting with lots of hand on information of the era and an excellent audio-visual portrayal of the Battles for Quebec. Our visit ended with a bus tour of the actual Plains, which, to our surprise were really hilly and not plains at all! We got off at one of the four Martello towers built in the surrounding area.The tower was used to store armaments and for protection. Fred was intrigued – a type of fortification that he had never heard of! (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Martello_tower)
The wooden roof is a concession to the bitter Quebec winters. In war time it would be removed. Fans of the Tower of London and similar Norman forts will recognize the external wooden ladder which leads to the only door, well above ground level.
Pivot gun replica. For those of you who have wondered how to load a Civil War era cannon …
We then walked back along the Governor’s Walk on the edge of the Citadel (a functioning military camp) to our coffee shop for another coffee, this time with ice-cream.It was a long hike and we had earned our coffee.
Heavy lift ship coming up the Saint Lawrence towards Montreal.
Ferrys passing mid river. Levis in the background. Our campground was some miles beyond, down the river to the right of the picture.
Then back to the ferry for the trip back to our campsite. We had to run and jump in front of the bus, but the driver was charming and helped us find our stop. The “forumule” of bus and ferry was a hit!
The next day we decided that the weather was too nice for a museum (although the Musee de la Civilization did beckon) so we headed to the Montmorency waterfall. This involved crossing the St. Lawrence on a bridge that prohibited trucks (Ooops!) and a sojourn through a residential neighborhood or two – funky GPS! The falls are quite spectacular even in a time of drought and after admiring from below, we took the cable car up to the top.
There we crossed the suspension bridge to admire the falls from above.
After our return to the base of the falls, we wandered closer to the actual falls, to the point where the spray was getting us wet.
Back at the campground we enjoyed the spectacle of a cruise ship coming up the Saint Lawrence in the sunset.
After leaving Prince Edward Island, we headed north in New Brunswick up the eastern coast.We were heading for the Acadian Historical Village (https://www.villagehistoriqueacadien.com/en) but decided to stop along the way at the Aquarium in Shippagan. (http://aquariumnb.ca/site/en/home) The Aquarium was small but dedicated to fish and other sea creatures found locally and there was a short video explaining the importance of the cod fishing industry to the region also. As noted in our post on Louisbourg, the importance of Cod fishing in the 1600’s is one of those aspects of history which had completely escaped us. Like most people, we never understood why the name “Cape Cod” was so important back in the day. The visit was most interesting because, unlike most large aquariums, the focus was entirely local. The best part was the seal pool and the feeding of the three seals, Nina (the glutton), Oceania (an aged seal) and D’Amour (the youngest). (https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/new-brunswick/seal-pup-born-in-shippagan-aquarium-1.1231465) They enjoyed performing for the crowd and both earned and enjoyed their herring dinner!
We then headed to the Shippagan Town campsite, a task made easier by big green signs painted directly on the road. We took our usual unserviced site. (http://www.camping.shippagan.com) This one, however, was buried in the woods and was beside the bay with spectacular views and we enjoyed a stroll along the wooden boardwalk after supper
Quite lovely. The mosquitoes were fierce but vast quantities of repellent helped with that.
We had trouble finding the Acadian Historical Village as it was shown in the wrong place on our map and the GPS had no record. A nice gentleman gave us directions and we found our way to a fascinating visit. The village has relocated and restored old building, homes and businesses, dating back to 1770 and showing aspects of Acadian life up to 1949. (Think Dearborn Village, the Weald and Downland, and similar collections.)
Dear pig, are you willing, to sell for one shilling, your ring? Said the piggy …
Denise was fascinated to discover flax growing outside one home from the late 1700’s.Inside, the costumed interpreter in period dress showed how the flax stalks were prepared, spun and then woven into a light weight linen fabric.
This was used to make clothing and bedding.There were examples of wool being spun, rugs being hooked and other household needs being made.
It was also fascinating to see the progression in the stoves throughout the ages. All using wood to burn, they became more sophisticated as the centuries passed.
Fireplace with crane
Stand alone stone stove with safety bars on stove pipe
The very latest thing!
Beautiful Clock from New Haven
An indoor well!
Fred loved the early garage with old fashioned pumps and three Model T Fords in the garage.
There were several industries in the village as well, a grist mill, a cooper’s shop, and, of course, the gentleman making brooms the hard way.
Steam box for bending wood for boats.
Water race into the turbine mill
Various flour and other mills
Barrel cinching tool
One can still spend the night in the 1920 hotel, though of course, we did not.
We did ride the farm cart AND the electric bus around the village one time before leaving, which was great fun.
Never found out if this bus was original or a modern replica